Thursday, March 17, 2016

Pluralism and paganism

[This blog post began as a comment at EyeContact, where I have been writing intermittently about Tongan-New Zealand art.]
It was wonderful to sit in a plush room at the Pah Homestead last year, sip champagne, and watch Auckland's art world honour Visesio Siasau. As I watched Siasau take the stage and acknowledge his Wallace Award, I remembered my visits to the studio he had improvised on the porch of his parents' home in Haveluloto, a village of dusty coral roads on the outskirts of  Nuku'alofa, the capital and only city of the Kingdom of Tonga. I remembered the reproaches the images he painted and sculpted in that studio received from some of his relatives. I thought about how far Sio had journeyed, and how much he deserved Nu'u Sila's most prestigious art prize. 
Now Siasau's work is going out into the world, and receiving new interpretations. EyeContact's Peter Dornauf has reviewed the massive series of ngatu paintings that won Siasau the Wallace, after these paintings were exhibited in the Waikato. I wanted to differ somewhat with Peter Dornauf's reading of Siasau's Wallace-winning work, but I am delighted that he and many other New Zealanders have been enjoying 'Onetu 'ofiuli - 'Onetuofekula'. I should emphasise, as well, that my interpretation of Visesio Siasau's art is not necessarily shared by the man himself. 
Dornauf observes that 'Onetu'ofiuli - 'Onetuofekula' might be translated loosely as 'Strands of colour inextricably connected to red and black'. Dornauf suggests that this title refers only to the formal aspects of Siasau's work, and gives little sense of the meaning of the images he has painted on ngatu. 
I am far from an expert on either the Tongan language or the semiotics of Tongan culture, but I know that red and black have very powerful connotations for Tongans, and that the connotations of kula are often contrasted to those of 'uli. Red is associated with masculinity and worldly power, while black connotes femininity and sacredness. 
In 2014 the Tongan-New Zealand painter Benjamin Work held an exhibition called I See Red, I See Red, I See Red at Otara's Fresh Gallery in which he reconnected kula with power, and linked the use of red paint and feathers by Tongan monarchs to the red crucifixes of palangi missionaries and the red flags of China's communist emperors. In a talk held to celebrate Benjamin's exhibition, 'Okusitino Mahina suggested that the colour red had become associated with males because in traditional Tongan society men worked outdoors, fishing and gardening and fighting, and got sunburnt. Women, by contrast, stayed out of the sun. 
I want to suggest that the title of Visesio Siasau's epic series of ngatu is not a simple statement about his colours, but rather a declaration of his desire to reconcile qualities that are often today treated, in Tongan and in many other cultures, as opposites. Because palangi cultures have tended to use the colours black and white to represent opposites, we could perhaps almost translate Siasau's title into English as something like 'All colours blend into black as well as white'. 
If we interpret Siasau's title in the way I have suggested, then we can reconsider Peter Dornauf's claim that the images on many of his ngatu are 'satirical', and reflect an anger at the influence of Christianity on Tonga. 
It is true that Siasau has rejected the Catholic faith of his parents. It is also true that his sculptures of crucified Polynesian gods and his paintings of a Jesus adorned by a dollar sign have angered some pious Tongans. 
But I think it would nevertheless be simplistic to consider Siasau a satirist of Christianity. He is not like the Samoan rapper Bill Urale, who ridicules not only the symbolism but the theology of Christianity, and argues that his people need to stop believing in 'an imaginary friend'. King Kapisi criticises Christianity because he is an atheist, and does not believe in a spiritual reality. Visesio Siasau, by contrast, criticises contemporary Tongan Christianity because he considers that it is not equal to the grandeur and the multiplicity of the spiritual universe. (When I counterpose Urale and Siasau, I don't mean to denigrate Urale's atheism, which is both brave and eloquent. I only mean to clarify what I see as Siasau's ideas.)
Siasau was for some time a Baha'i, and he is still on friendly terms with many members of that faith. Baha'i theology insists that all the world's religions are instruments of the same god, and that the different prophets and icons and rituals found on different continents and islands should be celebrated and reconciled. Thousands of Tongans have in recent decades abandoned the kingdom's Christian churches for Baha'i temples
Tongan Baha'is have often been criticised as atheists or even Satanists. A veteran Baha'i that I talked with at a kava circle remembered how stones had been thrown through his windows by neighbours outraged at his conversion. Baha'i defend themselves by insisting that they do not want to deny but rather complicate and enrich god. Jesus is not dethroned by their theology, but rather joined in his lofty place by Mohammed and Buddha and countless other holy men and women.
I think that, along with Baha'i theology, the scholarship of the late great Roger Neich has had an important influence on the development of Visesio Siasau's work. About a decade ago Siasau was standing in a queue in the bookshop of the Auckland museum, waiting to buy a volume by the ethnographer Roger Neich. When Neich walked into the bookshop the two men got talking. Soon they were standing in one of the museum's massive and magnificent storehouses, examining goddesses that Tongans carved out of ironwood centuries ago. Neich had spent years cataloguing and analysing the few pieces of pagan art that survived the fires lit by Tupou I, the Wesleyan warlord who used muskets and the Bible to unify Tonga in the middle of the nineteenth century. 
I think that the pluralism of the Baha'i faith and the revisionist scholarship of Roger Neich together helped Visesio Siasau to clarify his thinking and his practice. Siasau ransacked old ethnographic journals looking for drawings of temples and lyrics of chants. He wandered the Tongan bush looking for the sacred pagan groves where Tupou I sent his pigs to graze. His sculptures and his ngatu paintings began to offer images and forms from Tonga's pagan past, and to juxtapose them with images of contemporary Tonga. 
Over the last year Siasau has pushed past his old influences, and began to think, sculpt and paint in fiercely idiosyncratic ways. Last year he completed a Masters degree at the Wananga o Aotearoa by writing a thesis. Siasau's text offers a series of stories about his ancestors and his childhood amongst the carpenters and carvers of Haveluloto, then moves into a dense, poetic discussion of Tonga's deep past. In his struggle to communicate something of the otherness and grandeur of Tongan history and autochthonous Tongan religion, Siasau uses many ancient and unfamiliar words, and breaks up and recombines other words to create neologisms. His search for the past through language reminds me of Martin Heidegger's adventures in etymology, and his discussions of the psychic properties of certain words makes me think of Rimbaud's alchemie du verb.
In one of the most beautiful and bewildering passages of his thesis, Siasau tries to explain the title of the massive ngatu work that would win the Wallace Award:
'Onetu'ofiuli - 'Onetuofekula' is the articulation of the word 'Otua. 'Onetu'ofiuli signifies the vowel 'O', which is the noa or zero point, where the colour 'uli-black represents the negative pole of the word 'Otua. 'Onetuofekula' denotes the colour kula-red as a representation of light encoded in the vowel A. A is the positive pole of 'Otua. The syllable Tu is the catalyst for the positive knowledge of this polarity. 'Onetu'ofiuli - 'Onetuofekula' is the dwelling place of the highest level of consciousness found imbued in 'Otua. 
I think that, when he puts Tangaloa on the cross or fuses an icon of Jesus with an image of ancient Tonga's shaman-king, Siasau is not so much counterposing the past with the present, and rejecting one in favour of the other, but polemicising against one-sided ways of viewing the world. He believes that polarities like past and future, pagan and Christian, Tongan and palangi, need to be exploded, because they obscure a profound interconnectedness. And that desire to transcend polarities is manifested in the title of Siasau's Wallace-winning work, which is about much more than the colour of paint.
Visesio Siasau's preoccupations might seem fusty, and perhaps even esoteric, but they are a response to the emergencies of twenty-first century Tonga, a place where beggars camp outside salubrious churches, convenience stores and banks have bars on their windows, and teenagers dream of winning a Green Card Lottery
Despite their country's problems, Tongans remain a proud people. Tonga was the only Pacific society to avoid colonisation in the nineteenth century, and its people thank the Wesleyan dynasty established by Tupou I more than a century and a half ago for this fact. But Tupou I preserved his nation's independence by abolishing its old religion and much of its traditional culture, and imposing Christianity and a slew of palangi institutions and practices on his people. Tongan nationalism therefore has a curious, contradictory quality. When they wave the national flag that Tupou I adorned with a crucifix and sing the hymn to Jehovah that is their national anthem, Tongans stamp on the graves of the pagan gods and practices of their ancient ancestors. To be a Tongan patriot, it seems, is to reject much of pre-Christian Tonga. 
Some radical elements in Tongan society, like the late philosopher and pro-democracy activist Futa Helu and the expatriate American educator Michael Horowitz, have suggested that secularisation and even atheism as answers to some of the kingdom's troubles. But very few Tongans have become atheists. To abandon Christianity would mean repudiating much of their recent history, and much of their actually existing culture. Couldn't the wholesale rejection of Christianity be just as simplistic and destructive as Tupou I's rejection of pagan religion and culture? 
I think that, by advocating giving the pagan and Christian eras, with their different gods and value systems, equal measures of reverence, Visesio Siasau is trying to offer Tongans an alternative to both wholesale secularisation and the continued domination of Christianity. Siasau believes that, if they can only be recuperated and adapted to the twenty-first century, many pre-Christian ideas and practices can help to liberate Tonga. 
Siasau comes from a family of carpenters, and laments the decline of traditional carpentry. The old Tongan tufunga built tall, airy fale out of local timber, using ropes made from coconut hair rather than hammers and nails. They revered the engineer-god Tufunga Tangaloa, and their work was ritualised and very tapu. Today, as Siasau likes to point out, carpenters have been usurped by concrete mixers, and the high ceilings and open plan fale that kept Tongans cool even in summer have been replaced by boxy rooms in low-rooved, unnecessarily expensive houses. Tongans who cannot afford these ugly yet fashionable homes often resort to shacks made of corrugated iron and other imported materials. The kingdom's housing crisis has ideological as well as economic causes. Siasau believes that, if prejudice against the pagan past can only be overcome, arts like carpentry might revive and thrive. 
For all his esoteric language and recondite imagery, then, Visesio Siasau is a man with practical ends in mind. The publicity and acclaim that he has won over the last year can only help carry his message deep into Tongan society. [Posted by Scott Hamilton]


Blogger Richard said...

Just at the moment I am reading Penelope Deutscher's 'Reading Derrida' and she shows that, in fact, Derrida (recall he was from a colonised society [Algeria], and he was in many areas a political activist, although perhaps less so than Sartre) and her points re his Deconstruction (a re-reading and re-analysing of "great" texts (and neither did he reject or denigrate these writings, say by Plato [but he means any kind of writing, and any philosopher, artist etc], whose Republic I just read...and in particular his reading of The Phaedro (that some how the 'purity' of spoken language precedes and is greater than written. Derrida shows this isn't so and Deutscher takes the example of deconstructing (analyzing the tautology 'White it white.' [This comes from his almost SOPHISTIC showing how writing is speech (it has the same complexity and uncertainty as writing, is no more 'pure' as humans 20,000 years ago didn't necessarily live more pure lives or drink less contaminated water etc etc)] (recall Plato / Socrates criticized the sophists such as Protagoras "The truth can never be known, and even if it could, and I knew it, I couldn't explain it to anyone else"]), so Which (analysing the concept that 'white is white') an opponent of Derrida thought futile: she shows that this is not so, as such an analysis will show, like red versus black and white versus black etc, that in a context of colonialism (in a sense we are all colonized, all alienated (or not as the case might be) regardless of class or ethnicity or sex): in the context of our European culture (not as 'pure' as we might think it is (his "attack" on Plato was because of his move to the Ideal Forms, to a higher, more Real Knowledge, Real Being as say in his Cave analogy): in that culture we know that what is white or whiteness is a big issue. It is also an issue, say, for someone like Rimbaud who was blessed or cursed with synaesthesia. His vowel poem -the art work showing that is by whom Scott? I've seen it but forget who painted it...)...

9:01 pm  
Blogger Richard said...

He writes on plurality and so on, but doesn't privilege some 'oppressed' group, or some natural group: who in fact or what in fact is a Tongan, or a New Zealander. 'Tongan culture is...' already strides towards possiblities of arrogance and a unified or 'pure' nation: it could be a move toward Platonism. Closer is your analysis (or Siasau's vision it seems) which is like Deutcher's view of Derrida's ideas: by teasing out rather than imposing a single view Derrida is closer, much closer than Heidegger, who in many ways follows Plato. But you said something en passant re Post Modernism = relativism which was the unjust and stupid attack on Jack Ross for (rigtly) daring to invoke Derrida (it was too much for the politicos that Marx wasn't mentioned): suddenly Jack was a relativist, he was sliding away from reality: but in fact it was such as Protagoras, who Plato critqued who was said to have said: "Man is the measure of all things." (In Guthrie's book on the history of Greek Philosophy). True or not he and his felow (postmodernist?) Heraclitus - fragmented by history and his own choice also, who writes like a modern or post modern poet and whom Futa Helu was fascinated by, as his view is, if not 'relatavist', is challenging.

An opening digression as an introduction!

I am in concordance with your views here: but this is (perhaps as I was by chance reading the book about Derrida) or seems to me to be closer to that philosopher who avoids the traps of certainty and absoluteness which Marxists and others rapidly are drawn to in an almost (paradoxically) Platonic drive toward a kind of secular paradise. As if such a 'purity' or 'perfection' were some solution. We are left with an alternative. Art showing Jesus Christ with a dollar note on his heart (sacred?) showing the ambiguities and the complexities.

It is a pity that, when you talk about the tired stuff like ANZAC and all those boring nationalists worrying about flags and whiteness indeed, and so on, and about 'freedom' (whose freedom?) and so on, you get some response: if you had posted on the NZ flag you would get a response, but Tonga, and art, and poetry: nothing, well, not nothing of course, as people read it and tweet and twit etc....

But I think the huge tapa stenciled is amazing (there were other very good artists who missed the prize) but it is good as I said before. Interesting. Andy also critiqued Samoa. Interesting.

I like the text part in Tongan and part in English.

Some fascinating art and writing still coming out from Tonga and other Pacific nations.

9:01 pm  
Anonymous Scott Hamilton said...

Whoa! Some heavy ideas there RT! I'd have to go back and reread (or, in many cases, read for the first time) some of those philosophical tomes to respond to your points without embarrassing myself. By and large commenting has declined markedly on blogs over the last four or five years, but you do get folks responding to blogs on social media like facebook and twitter. Some of the Tongan stuff I've done has had a huge response on facebook - I think my lecture on 'Ata got about three hundred shares there. But it is disappointing that there isn't more discussion, both here and at sites like EyeContact, about the younger Tongan-NZ artists who've started working over the last decade. They really do constitute a movement, or set of movements, that has some of the outrageousness and danger and derring do of the 'classical' avant-garde of fin de siecle Europe. Tevita Latu, who is exhibiting for the first time in NZ right now at Northart gallery in Northcote, is the Tristan Tzara of the South Pacific...

9:09 pm  
Anonymous Scott Hamilton said...

I think I mentioned that Sio was a keen reader of the comments you leave on this site Richard. And I think there are some parallels between the linguistic experiments in his thesis and some of your own.

Here's Vea Mafile'o's film 'Aho'eitu, which is playing alongside Tevita's paintings and works by a number of other Tongans at Northart:

9:22 pm  
Blogger Richard said...

The book I mentioned is very good. I was reading it prior to possibly tackling the primary text. I had a similar book about Heidegger, who I am interested in also. Also the point about Bah'i is interesting (Barry Crump joined that, one of his books I have here has a bloke who won the Golden Kiwi giving someone a lift, the passenger keeps slamming the door! Then he suddenly asks: "Do you believe in God?" This nearly causes the driver to drive off the road...with all his faults Crump was a bloody good writer...
But I also, by chance had a huge book from the library about the Dadaists and they are important: unfortunately it was vast, and had to return it...
Bu it was interesting how Hugo Ball began it all in Zurich, he was keen on WWI, but happened to visit the front, this caused a nervous breakdown, and then they all teamed up: Dadaism is vital still.

Plato one has to read (and sometimes he is ingenious), I did The Meno etc at University: but it is interesting that Derrida had read ALL of Plato and much more. His deconstruction is in literatures of all kinds. I would say he doesn't necessarily reject Marxism but would be wary of the rhetoric that is in or was in the Left...enough people see this, and I know re Twitter etc. I like to be on here where it's quieter!

It is flattering that Seisau likes my posts!! I think he and Andy and others are incredibly innovative and energetic. It is good that he (unironically, I agree with you here against the other fellow) the figures of God or Christ alongside a pagan image that Neish (was it?) would appreciate.

Is Tevita Latu the young woman round here? Is she still exhibiting...I'll google. I'll look at that film.

I was going to phone my daughter but got caught up in this! Oh well, sent her a message on FB....

I was in telecommunications, but ironically, I try to limit my technological usage as I feel myself getting dragged under by the mass of it all...Hence, no cell phone (of my own), and no notebook, I still write things out of books by hand! Then 'type' these things up.

Yes, there may be a connection, i am not sure whether I am original: the idea came via Charles Bernstein, but I had my own 'spin' on it all as Leicester was doing so many projects I started one before I had a computer and I "invented" hyperlinks before I had heard of the term. I had red lines in a rectangle round significant words which linked further in my book to other ideas and so on...and I was also influenced, somewhat, by Zukofsky's idea of growing 80 Flowers and then writing about each flower over a ten year period. Many ideas like that, later such as Goldsmith who you famously tried to interest Jack Ross in! I recall you had that huge book that started with 2 syllable words and got bigger and bigger, and he said he didn't like long books. Then you valorised 'Piers Plowman' the way another thing I remember is that you two agreed re Russell's Intro to Philosophy and I said nothing but I had read that as a teenager, and it is good, and has a good summary of Plato, Schopenhauer etc
But Kenneth Goldsmith moved on, as you know, to 'uncreative writing' which amuses me: but he also has that UbuWeb, which has some amusing stuff on it, or used to...

9:46 pm  
Blogger Richard said...

Oh yes, I remember that post about Levita. He's is good also. A character! "Reformasi!" You know that on googled pages on Tongan art often it throws me back to Reading the Maps!

I find myself reading things I have said and now disagree with or am puzzled by, although sometimes I agree with myself...

Yes, a lot of stuff going on.

10:06 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

9:20 am  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Some Tongans might be susceptible to Trumpite propaganda about enemies of Christianity:

2:00 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

'One of the most interesting questions in the debate was posed to Hitchens by a man from Tonga. Before the Christians came to Tonga, he said, the place was a mess. Even cannibalism was widespread. The Christians stopped this practice and brought to Tonga the notion that each person has a soul and God loves everyone equally. The man from Tonga asked Hitchens, "So what do you have to offer us?" Hitchens was taken aback, and responded with a learned disquisition on cannibalism in various cultures. But he clearly missed the intellectual and moral force of the man's question. The man was asking why the Tongans, who had gained so much from Christianity, should reject it in favor of atheism.'

2:05 pm  
Blogger Richard said...

Why was the place a mess? Is cannibalism necessarily bad? How much cannibalism was there? What evidence? People have probably practiced cannibalism for thousands of years in different circumstances. What does
it mean to say a place is a mess? Should the place you mean be tidied up
like an adolescent's boy's room? Who is to judge it is a mess? Were the Tongans starting to decline in some way?

Are Christians who abandon Christianity necessarily atheists? Some might become Buddhists, or Moslems, or Hindus, or Bah'i. All of these are examples of those who believe, if not in a God, but either gods or some kind of 'otherness'. Before (some) human beings became Christians, did they start to get ill, or get into a "mess", or were things better than after some became Christians?

Is God necessarily benign? Even if there is a God, should we necessarily "worship" God. What is God? What preceded God? Quantum ripples, or atomic cornflakes?

Who knows. How can we know anything?

[A few questions.]

7:54 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

VKT Richard Taylor.


8:40 pm  
Blogger Richard said...

Scott you should label your images. There's a facility for that. I am often confused as to who or what or what artist has done the work in an image, or who the person is.

11:51 am  
Anonymous Comment By Sio said...

In my approach, Creativity is a DYNAMIC that driven by the cosmic conciouness of our Tongan cosmology that arrange the semiotics and semantic within the Onotu'ofe'uli-onotu'ofekula(the inextricable knowledge of the distant dark future ONOPOONI-modern paradigm, and the inextricale distant light of the past ONO'AHO encoded by KULA-red colour the ancient paradigm that (in)coherently work within the Tongan space. This is how these images comes to life or 'ATAMAI-comes in our direction as a reflection of the realities and existant of our Tongan in comparision to the imposition force of christian religion, western politics and economics of modern time. Why satarical and paganism as we have knowledge of the simulteneity articulation of our 'OTUA-GOD, land, skyies, moana, birds and so on, that we put to sleep as we move towards the right. How can we be truly Tongan? Malie malie "WE ARE WHO WE ARE" as always Tongan. We are relevance as we are exist.

8:51 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

'Im an atheist, So God Cant Judge me.His Laws dont apply 2 me.He never done sh*t 4 Me or my peoples. Who is he 2 us again?' - King Kapisi

2:11 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Brownie Brown

One of my recent secondary school students is a Tongan who asked me what church I went to. When I explained that I was no longer a Christian and so no longer went to church, she recoiled in horror. "Oh Miss, that means you worship the devil! Eew!" No claim of mine for not being a devil-worshipper carried any weight. We remain on good terms, but it is clear that she sees me as of dangerous beliefs. Looks like a very long-lived sign of colonization to me.

11:50 am  
Blogger Richard said...

Some people react like that. I don't know why. I keep an open mind re God or whatever although The Big Guy has a lot to answer for. It is a way of living I think. If she abandons her belief and attitude, a lot of other things have to be jettisoned.

But you cant change people's beliefs, it is something they have to work out. We are all different!

Is it colonization? I think those things are too general, to fuzzy, theoretical (like Marxism itself)...Scott goes into all the historical and sometime Marxist reasons for history etc but I think humans need things like nationalism and religion: those who think they are dubious(like me) are perhaps on the outside. The idea of a devil is probably something learned as a child. It kind of sticks in one's mind.

It might be good if such people could study some philosophy, not to repudiate their religious beliefs, but to see that the world is a little more complex that right-wrong, good-evil etc

4:27 pm  
Blogger Richard said...

Sio combines in his own way his own nation or 'group's' history or ethos in his art (as above). The Christian religion, the whole caboodle, is kind of 'deconstructed' (not necessarily destroyed but criticized and possibly transformed, in this case into and through art)...

Colonization is one of the forces that shape us all.

4:30 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

2:06 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Tagaloa is NOT the God of the Bible!
Tagaloa was the main Principality and fallen angel in charge of the Polynesian race and people. Tagaloa is still being worshipped in Polynesia today by a few who call themselves Tagaloanians.
Many Churches in Niue and the Cook Islands are still worshipping Tagaloa in their churches today under the misunderstanding that Tagaloa is another name for the God of the Bible. If you know anything about Tagaloa in the Pacific, you would know that he could never be the same person as the God of the Bible.

If Tagaloa was the God of the Bible, then that means God had sex with many women in Polynesia and bore many children here before the birth of Jesus Christ. The Bible translators in Polynesia also never used the name Tagaloa for God in all Polynesian translations of the Bible, because they knew that Tagaloa was NEVER the same person as the God of the Bible. Tagaloa in Samoan, Niue and Tongan is known as Taaroa in Tahiti; Kanaloa in Hawaii; Tanaoa and Takaoa in Marquesas; Tangaroa in the Cook Islands and Aotearoa, and Tangaro in some islands of Vanuatu.

Tagaloas invasion of Polynesia:
Tagaloa invaded the Polynesian people with his spiritual armies and through sexual intercourse with Polynesian women. The first Polynesian woman he sexually violated was from the Moa family in Manua, and their offspring was the first Tui Manua (King of Manua), by the name of Tae o Tagaloa (Issue of Tagaloa).

He was of a giant build with supernatural powers and famous for his deadly fiery eyes. The Tui Manua Line became the first royal line in Polynesia which makes Manua the true cradle of Polynesia. All old Polynesia paid tribute to the Tui Manua from French Polynesia in the east to Fiji in the west, Tokelau in the north and Tonga in the south. I believe Hawaii was also under Manua in the early days because the most southerly part of Hawaii (and the most southerly part of the USA) is called Kau after Tau of Manua.

Tagaloas leading role in the whole Pacific
Since the launching of the new season of Celestial Wars in the Pacific in 2000, Tagaloa was definitely leading all the armies of Satan against the angelic armies of God.
I do not know all the reasons why Tagaloa was leading Satans forces in the Pacific. Right now he is out of action, but Niue was his last stronghold. Niue is the leading Polynesian nation in Tagaloa worship within their culture, politics and church. All Polynesian nations must repent of Tagaloa worship or face the consequences of their idolatry and ignorance.

Tagaloa and his Moa
Tagaloa normally rides on a red spiritual bird that looks like a cross between a chicken and the Moa bird of Aotearoa.

3:19 pm  
Blogger Unknown said...

When you're tired, you want to relax after a stressful working hours, you need to have time to take care of the kids active.
Please visit our website and play exciting flash games.
Thanks you for sharing!
Friv 4

4:08 am  
Anonymous cat mario said...

Run game is today's hottest games. Run 3 unblocked version is most played game, run 2 unblocked is the older version, but still favorite players. In addition, return man 2 unblocked game is a big competitor of run game. Right behind return man game is cat mario 4 game which has plays No. 4 in the rankings this week.
Source: tank trouble unblocked and stick war unblocked - unblocked games

8:53 pm  
Blogger Unknown said...

you are suffocating owing debtors. One can acknowledge that hazard includes some major disadvantages, yet is the buyer and nobody else to fault for this untrustworthy way of acquiring and loaning? check cashing san diego

8:22 pm  

Post a Comment

<< Home